A Place of Fortresses (1 Viewer)

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Hailstones Melt

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A Place of Fortresses

The Kingdom of Urartu was a loose confederation of fortress/cities/towns, in lands that are now occupied by modern Turkey (eastern Anatolia), Armenian Republic and Iran. Today’s neighbouring countries are Georgia, Iraq, Iran and Syria. The civilisation started approximately 13th century BCE. Some of its famous sites are Erebuni (near northern border with what is now Georgia, and now the Armenian capital city, Yerevan), Lake Van and Tushpa (ancient capital). Geographically, this area is just south of the lands between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea (Asia Minor). The ancient city of Tushpa is today’s Van, within view of the fabled Mount Ararat. The original name of the area (Biaina) was corrupted to the more simple Van, located in the region of Tosp. It is also close to the Ararat Plain. The Armenian plateau was then known as Nairi. It was a desert region, but a farsighted King Menua achieved an engineering feat by building a stone-lined canal to bring fresh water to the city (Lake Van is salt water) 80km from the Artos Mountains (r.c. 810-785 BCE). Aqueducts were also rasied where necessary to carry the water, which is remarkable as this era pre-dates the founding of Rome. The headwaters of the Tigris and Euphrates river systems come from eastern Anatolia.

Urartu consisted of a network of interlinked and interspersed fortresses, rather than massive urban settlements. Herodotus called its people Alarodians. Hebrews called them the people of Ararat. The people of the region in ancient times called themselves Khaldians. They are believed to be the early ancestors of the Armenian population today (although a lot of people now residing in the Republic of Armenia were refugees from the Armenian genocide (perpetrated by the Ottoman Empire) in 1915.

Urartu_map.gif

A map of the region of Urartu, bounded by the Caucasus Mountains and the Caspian Sea in the north and north-east, Pontic Mountains and the Black Sea to the north-west, and the Taurus Mountains with Semitic lands in the south (Assyrian Empire)

Urartu flourished in the Iron Age, and was known for advanced use of metallurgy. The region was also famous for horse-breeding. According to the Greek historian, Xenophon (430-354 BCE) at the temple of Haldi in Erebuni (the site of today’s capital city of Armenia, Yerevan) horses were sacrificed to god Khaldi and to Shivini (the Khaldian Sun God). Archaeologists uncovered grape seeds, olive oil, lentils, peas and malted barley for brewing beer. 2,800 year old seeds have been recovered through archaeological digs, and at present are being tested for viability. This agricultural plenty in a desert land was assisted by the artificial canal which created fertile fringes around the lake, near Tushpa. Further north, water was also collected in an artificial lake in the Varag Mountains for the earthern fort where King Rusas had his capital.

meadow-mount-Ararat.jpg

Although Lake Van is salt water, the land was fertile when under cultivation and irrigated.

The decline of the civilisation probably started about 8th century BCE and the civilisation was fully destroyed by the end of the 6th century BCE. The area was close to major trade routes between the Mediterranean and Central Asia, and as such it was a strategic place, which underwent many wars. The main enemies of the Urartian peoples were the Assyrians (invading kings were Ashurbanipal II and Salmanasar III) in lands to the South and West of Urartu, and the Cimmerians and Scythians (from the north); and the Medians (Medes – a people of ancient Persia).

After the fall of the Urartian states in 6th Century BCE, Erebuni became a Persian satrapy of Armenia, under the Achaemenian Empire. Persian power in the area of Erebuni collapsed due to the conquests of Alexander the Great (332-323 BCE).

The root of the spoken and written languages was Hurrian (Vannic cuneiform script was found in many inscriptions at the fortress sites, and was either Assyrian cuneiform, or Khaldian script which was not Indo-European. The origins are thought to be Transcaucasian).

Hurrian is an extinct Hurro-Urartian language spoken by the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in modern-day Syria. It is generally believed that the speakers of this language originally came from the Armenian Highlands and spread over southeast Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurrian_language


The main gods of the ancient Urartians were Khaldi, Teisheba, and Shivini (Sun God).

Lake Van and Mount Ararat.jpg Mount Ararat with Lake Van in foreground.jpg

Lake Van and Mount Ararat



Lake Van from satellite.jpg Lake Van in Winter.png

Satellite view of Lake Van The Lake in winter.

Lake Van.jpg

Lake Van

Mount Ararat.png

Mount Ararat is thought to be the resting place of Noah’s Ark, and is an important mountain in biblical history.




panorama-israel-archeology-mt-ararat-urartu-dogubayazit-eski-urartian-sanctuary-fortress-800bc...jpg

tushpa-van-fortress.jpg


The hilltop fortress (citadel) of Van

submerged ruins near Van, in Lake Van.jpg


submerged archaeological find_near city of Van.jpg

Shallow submerged ruins of a church, close to the shore in Lake Van

The Lake Van fortification is approximately 1 sq km. The building blocks for the walls were as long as 6m and as thick as 75cm. The fortress was built on a limestone promontory on the eastern shores of Lake Van. The height of the rock which gave the fortress its advantage was 115m (375 feet) from lake level. The associated township, Tushpa, was founded by King Sardur (r.c. 835 - 825 BCE). Tushpa was named after Tushpuea, the consort of Shivini (Urartian Sun God). The town had a population of 50,000 at its peak.

The famous king, Sardur III inscribed his victories on a monument erected at the site of the Treasury Gate, in the Fortress of Van. Argistis 1 inscribed his victories on the walls of chambers hewn directly in the Rock of Van.

A new archaeological find:

A recent find (since 2015) has been a submerged 3,000 year old castle in Lake Van.

castle ruins found in Lake Van_Urartu.jpg Location of sunken castle ruins in Lake Van.jpg

Foundation walls of castle Satellite view showing location of archaeological find

castle remains, Lake Van, eastern Anatolia, Turkey.png submerged ruins_Lake Van_2.jpg submerged ruins_Lake Van_4.jpg

Fairy-chimneys are natural stalagmites.jpg

Stalagmites were found near the submerged castle (natural limestone formations which normally grow in underground cave systems). These are similar to the “fairy chimneys” also found in eastern Turkey.

The Fortess of Arin Berd (Fortress of Blood) – also known as Erebuni

Yerevan (/jɛrəˈvɑːn/ YERR-ə-VAHN; Armenian: Երևան[a] [jɛɾɛˈvɑn] (listen), sometimes spelled Erevan)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yerevan#cite_note-17 is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.[16] Situated along the Hrazdan River, Yerevan is the administrative, cultural, and industrial center of the country. It has been the capital since 1918, the fourteenth in the history of Armenia and the seventh located in or around the Ararat plain. …

The history of Yerevan dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the fortress of Erebuni in 782 BC by king Argishti I at the western extreme of the Ararat plain.[18] Erebuni was "designed as a great administrative and religious centre, a fully royal capital."[19] By the late ancient Armenian Kingdom, new capital cities were established and Yerevan declined in importance… The city expanded rapidly during the 20th century as Armenia became part of the Soviet Union. In a few decades, Yerevan was transformed from a provincial town within the Russian Empire to Armenia's principal cultural, artistic, and industrial center, as well as becoming the seat of national government.

Of the notable landmarks of Yerevan, Erebuni Fortress is considered to be the birthplace of the city…

In 782 BCE, King Arguishti 1 (r.c. 786-756 BCE) built a fortress of stone on a high hill over the river Aras (65m elevation above the banks of the river). His inscription can be found on a cuneiform slab of basalt.

Cuneiform inscription_Arguishti I.jpg
King Arguishti 1’s Vannic cuneiform inscription

In today’s map, Erebuni is found as part of Nor-Aresh District and Vardahsen District. This fortress was rediscovered in 1950 and excavated by Armenians and Soviets since then. It consisted of a citadel on top of the hill, triangular in shape (due to the geographic location); and a town or city at its base. Walls extended 12m high on the steep-sided slope, and reinforced with buttresses. This proved to be an impressive deterrent to siege and attack.

The area of Erebuni is approximately 40 hectares (99 acres), and has imposing views of Mount Ararat and the Ararat Plain. The area of the citadel included a Temple of Haldi, and there was possibly a ziggurat there too. Worship to Khaldi including sacrifice took place there. The King’s palace in the northwestern part of the hilltop was covered with wall murals on its inner walls. These depicted farming or hunting scenes, or had geometrical or vegetative designs.

Temple of Haldi, Erebuni, Urartu.jpg

Ruins of Temple of Haldi, at Erebuni
 
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Hailstones Melt

Hailstones Melt

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It is thought that an earthquake in the region destroyed much of Erebuni fortress and the associated town, during the reign of Rusa II (r.c. 680-638 BCE)

Metallurgical decoration from Van_7th Century BCE.jpg
Metallurgical decoration from Van, 7th Century BCE

Urartian sphinx.jpg
Urartian sphinx

Urartian bronze griffin (lion_bird combination).jpg
Urartian Bronze Griffin (part lion/part bird)


Mount_Ararat_and_the_Yerevan_skyline_in_spring_(50mm).jpg
The modern Armenian city of Yerevan (capital) in the plain below Mount Ararat

Internet references:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yerevan

www.ancient.eu/Erebuni

www.ancient.eu/Tushpa

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurrian_language

www.armenian-history.com

www.ancient-origins.net

www.bible.ca

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/11/underwater-fortress-urartu-lake-van-turkey-archaeology-video-spd/
 
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Hailstones Melt

Hailstones Melt

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I seem to have stumbled upon a whole area of hypothesis and research which is fully detailed at this site:
The subject is the Armenian Plateau, the cradle of civilisation, DNA research into the origins of races, megalithic structures and early astronomy, Bronze Age, then Iron Age artefacts and pre-existing peoples of the area, before the Urartians. The hypothesis is that the greater Anatolian region (including Gobekli Tepe in southeastern Anatolia, through to the northern highlands south of Georgia and west of Azerbaijan) will be considered the new cradle of civilisation (pre-dating Indo-European and Western influences).

I recommend at least a glance at that website, because it could be that in the next few years, strongly held beliefs about antiquity may be swept aside in favour of some of these findings.
 
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Hailstones Melt

Hailstones Melt

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Armenian Gampr Dog.jpg Armenian Gampr dog_2.jpg
This is the Armenian Gampr, obviously well suited to the mountainous terrain. Their ancestors lived in times of much war, defence through fortresses, expansion and takeover. Their people were involved in horse-breeding, travel, metallurgy and early wine-making.
 
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Hailstones Melt

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Digging into the future - Armenia - pilot screener, 30th Dec 2014, Joseph Rosendo's Travelscope.

This is a documentary showing archaeology and more generalised history of the Armenian plateau and mountainous region (it covers the earliest megalithic discoveries, through Urartia and further on through Byzantine, Catholicism, Coptic and Islamic influences, the period in the 20th century as a Russian state, and current day cultural and agricultural practices).

It is interesting that animal sacrifice is still practiced today, under the cloak of Christian theology, but apparently that is a much more ancient practice that has continued through many eras of change.

Of course I don't condone animal sacrifice - I see it as a hanger-on of the old paradigm (that, and Christianity, actually). They are just older and newer levels of the same consciousness that is upgrading now.
 
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June

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Digging into the future - Armenia - pilot screener, 30th Dec 2014, Joseph Rosendo's Travelscope.

This is a documentary showing archaeology and more generalised history of the Armenian plateau and mountainous region (it covers the earliest megalithic discoveries, through Urartia and further on through Byzantine, Catholicism, Coptic and Islamic influences, the period in the 20th century as a Russian state, and current day cultural and agricultural practices).

It is interesting that animal sacrifice is still practiced today, under the cloak of Christian theology, but apparently that is a much more ancient practice that has continued through many eras of change.

Of course I don't condone animal sacrifice - I see it as a hanger-on of the old paradigm (that, and Christianity, actually). They are just older and newer levels of the same consciousness that is upgrading now.
Thankyou for all that info and pics, unfortunately, as usual, YouTube won’t allow me to watch the video unless I agree to them tracking my activity, so I haven’t seen that, but later I intend to check out the Armenian highlands.
 
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Hailstones Melt

Hailstones Melt

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Erebuni_pattern.jpg

The Erebuni fortress - in a carpet. Note the worship of the Tree of Life icon in the centre of the lower panel.
 
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Hailstones Melt

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Names
'Urartu' comes from urashtu, the Assyrian word for the kingdom, and signifies “high place”, possibly referring to either the mountainous region or the culture’s common practice of building fortifications on rock promontories. To the Babylonians they were uruatri, and to the Hebrews the kingdom was known as Ararat. The Urartians called themselves Biaina and their state Biainili (or Land of the Nairi).
By the 7th century BCE, Urartu controlled territory which stretched from the Caspian Sea to the Upper Euphrates.
Prosperity
Urartu sprang from a confederation of kingdoms which had developed from the 14th or 13th century BCE onwards. A recognisable and independent state known as Urartu developed from the 9th century BCE which combined these smaller kingdoms, probably in response to an external threat from Assyria. The culture prospered thanks to settlement on the extensive fertile plateau which was well-supplied by rivers. Crops included wheat, barley, millet, rye, sesame, and flax. Viticulture was also important, wine-making in the region perhaps being the earliest anywhere. Remains of fruit found at Urartu sites include plums, apples, cherries, quinces, and pomegranates.
Animal husbandry prospered thanks to excellent mountain pastures, and sheep, goats, cattle, and horses were all bred. Mineral deposits in the area included gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, and tin. The location on the trade routes between the ancient Mediterranean and Asian and Anatolian cultures was another source of prosperity. Although protected by mountains in the north and south, defence was perpetually necessary against attackers from the east and west eager to capitalise on the region's wealth.

In this learning journey, I have found out that this "Kingdom" of mountain hill fortresses mainly had to resist incursions from the Hittites (to the North and West) and the Assyrians (from the South) - and later, the Persians from the south-east (modern-day Iran). They were certainly a mountain-girded crucible of agricultural and livestock resources, fighting to maintain the general takeovers of several other races. Although their history goes back to the Late Bronze Age (and their submission of earlier cultures), their prominence in the Early Iron Age really only lasted approximately 300 years. This was the time when they were stronger than the Assyrians and expanded their lands. Later on, the Assyrians got the ascendancy over them.

I have noticed a lot of the idioms seem shared, such as the conical hats, charioteers and chariots for war, ringlets and beards on the men, the Tree of Life icons, etc. While the wheel was an earlier invention and possibly came from tribes on the Steppes, chariots were employed around Mesopotamia, Mitanni, Assyria, Hittites, Hyskos, Egypt, and then later on in Rome, etc.

Here are some images found on Urartian artefacts (found at burial sites, on palace walls, etc.) Two horses and two charioteers seem to be the most common (one of the charioteers driving the horses, the other managing the arrows and/or javelins). Where four horses were used, the reins were tied around the charioteer's waist to stop him toppling off the chariot.


Artists impression_Urartu war chariot.jpg
Artist's impression

Urartu_Chariot5.jpg

Urartu_Chariot3.jpgUrartu_Chariot3.jpg

Part of bronze Helmet from Teishebani showing Tree of Life.jpg
Tree of Life engraving (part of Helmet)



Erebuni-chariot-4930.jpg
A preserved wooden chariot found in the suburbs of Yerevan (at an archaeological dig site)Urartu_Chariot1.png

The plumes depicted on the horses' head gear remind me of the stiff horse-hair plumes used by the Ancient Greeks which were common in warrior helmets at the time of Alexander the Great (Macedon). Possibly, those cultures got this idea from these earlier cultures.
 
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Lila

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Information like this will sometimes spark our consciousness if we had had lives in such times back on Earth.
Yup, doing so for me.
Not much detail yet... but it feels like it's coming:cool:
 
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Hailstones Melt

Hailstones Melt

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> Khaldians

Would these people be called the Chaldeans today?
Without looking any of this up, shooting from the hip, I think the Chaldeans were situated in the city of Ur, olden day Sumer, or what is now known as Iraq. They had ziggurats and all that, including a white one. They were also astronomers.

There was probably bleed-through from the surrounding cultures, and it's interesting that Urartu has Ur encapsulated in the name. But from what I have read, the origins of these (now Armenian) peoples are most likely from Hurrian race. There was another civilisation called Subaru (think Japanese motor vehicle today!) This place was also called Subartu and was more to the south, a subset of those ruled under Akkad (Assyria) in the Bronze Age. The Hurrians lived in Anatolia (now Turkey) and northern Mesopotamia. Some of these races were allowed to live quietly within larger populations, such as the Hittites. It seems to be a pretty complicated picture in that area of the world at that time.
 
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Hailstones Melt

Hailstones Melt

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Interesting, because Subaru is the Japanese name for the Pleiades star cluster, that cluster of 7? stars.
It doesn't surprise me that things of our ancient past would have star-borne or cosmic meaning. The Japanese have had many more enlightened masters in ratio to the population than the West has. Beyond the techno-glam of Japan today, there are many deep secrets waiting to be revealed, other than those few who know them.
 

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